# Absolute Temperature WORK

Absolute temperature, also called thermodynamic temperature, is the temperature of an object on a scale where 0 is taken as absolute zero. Absolute temperature scales are Kelvin and Rankine.

## absolute temperature

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Absolute zero is the temperature at which a system is in the state of lowest possible (minimum) energy. As molecules approach this temperature their movements drop towards zero. It is the lowest temperature a gas thermometer can measure. No electronic devices work at this temperature. No living thing can live in this temperature. The Kinetic energy of the molecules becomes negligible or zero.

To convert from the Celsius scale into the absolute temperature, you add 273.15 and change C to K. To get a temperature on the absolute scale to the Celsius scale, subtract 273.15 and change K to C.This is normally used in the science world. Kelvin is used globally as a part of the International System of Units. It is one of the 7 base units of the system.The value of Absolute temperature is 0K.

Historically, thermodynamic temperature was defined by Kelvin in terms of a macroscopic relation between thermodynamic work and heat transfer as defined in thermodynamics, but the kelvin was redefined by international agreement in 2019 in terms of phenomena that are now understood as manifestations of the kinetic energy of free motion of microscopic particles such as atoms, molecules, and electrons. From the thermodynamic viewpoint, for historical reasons, because of how it is defined and measured, this microscopic kinetic definition is regarded as an "empirical" temperature. It was adopted because in practice it can generally be measured more precisely than can Kelvin's thermodynamic temperature.

A thermodynamic temperature reading of zero is of particular importance for the third law of thermodynamics. By convention, it is reported on the Kelvin scale of temperature in which the unit of measurement is the kelvin (unit symbol: K). For comparison, a temperature of 295 K is equal to 21.85 C and 71.33 F.

Thermodynamic temperature, as distinct from SI temperature, is defined in terms of a macroscopic Carnot cycle. Thermodynamic temperature is of importance in thermodynamics because it is defined in purely thermodynamic terms. SI temperature is conceptually far different from thermodynamic temperature. Thermodynamic temperature was rigorously defined historically long before there was a fair knowledge of microscopic particles such as atoms, molecules, and electrons.

The International System of Units (SI) specifies the international absolute scale for measuring temperature, and the unit of measure kelvin (unit symbol: K) for specific values along the scale. The kelvin is also used for denoting temperature intervals (a span or difference between two temperatures) as per the following example usage: "A 60/40 tin/lead solder is non-eutectic and is plastic through a range of 5 kelvins as it solidifies." A temperature interval of one degree Celsius is the same magnitude as one kelvin.

The microscopic property that imbues material substances with a temperature can be readily understood by examining the ideal gas law, which relates, per the Boltzmann constant, how heat energy causes precisely defined changes in the pressure and temperature of certain gases. This is because monatomic gases like helium and argon behave kinetically like freely moving perfectly elastic and spherical billiard balls that move only in a specific subset of the possible motions that can occur in matter: that comprising the three translational degrees of freedom. The translational degrees of freedom are the familiar billiard ball-like movements along the X, Y, and Z axes of 3D space (see Fig. 1, below). This is why the noble gases all have the same specific heat capacity per atom and why that value is lowest of all the gases.

Fixing the Boltzmann constant at a specific value, along with other rule making, had the effect of precisely establishing the magnitude of the unit interval of SI temperature, the kelvin, in terms of the average kinetic behavior of the noble gases. Moreover, the starting point of the thermodynamic temperature scale, absolute zero, was reaffirmed as the point at which zero average kinetic energy remains in a sample; the only remaining particle motion being that comprising random vibrations due to zero-point energy.

Temperature scales are numerical. The numerical zero of a temperature scale is not bound to the absolute zero of temperature. Nevertheless, some temperature scales have their numerical zero coincident with the absolute zero of temperature. Examples are the International SI temperature scale, the Rankine temperature scale, and the thermodynamic temperature scale. Other temperature scales have their numerical zero far from the absolute zero of temperature. Examples are the Fahrenheit scale and the Celsius scale.

Temperature is generally expressed in absolute terms when scientifically examining temperature's interrelationships with certain other physical properties of matter such as its volume or pressure (see Gay-Lussac's law), or the wavelength of its emitted black-body radiation. Absolute temperature is also useful when calculating chemical reaction rates (see Arrhenius equation). Furthermore, absolute temperature is typically used in cryogenics and related phenomena like superconductivity, as per the following example usage:"Conveniently, tantalum's transition temperature (Tc) of 4.4924 kelvin is slightly above the 4.2221 K boiling point of helium."

The Boltzmann constant and its related formulas describe the realm of particle kinetics and velocity vectors whereas ZPE (zero-point energy) is an energy field that jostles particles in ways described by the mathematics of quantum mechanics. In atomic and molecular collisions in gases, ZPE introduces a degree of chaos, i.e., unpredictability, to rebound kinetics; it is as likely that there will be less ZPE-induced particle motion after a given collision as more. This random nature of ZPE is why it has no net effect upon either the pressure or volume of any bulk quantity (a statistically significant quantity of particles) of gases. However, in temperature T = 0 condensed matter; e.g., solids and liquids, ZPE causes inter-atomic jostling where atoms would otherwise be perfectly stationary. Inasmuch as the real-world effects that ZPE has on substances can vary as one alters a thermodynamic system (for example, due to ZPE, helium won't freeze unless under a pressure of at least 2.5 MPa (25 bar)), ZPE is very much a form of thermal energy and may properly be included when tallying a substance's internal energy.

Though there have been many other temperature scales throughout history, there have been only two scales for measuring thermodynamic temperature where absolute zero is their null point (0): The Kelvin scale and the Rankine scale.

Throughout the scientific world where modern measurements are nearly always made using the International System of Units, thermodynamic temperature is measured using the Kelvin scale. The Rankine scale is part of English engineering units in the United States and finds use in certain engineering fields, particularly in legacy reference works. The Rankine scale uses the degree Rankine (symbol: R) as its unit, which is the same magnitude as the degree Fahrenheit (symbol: F).

A unit increment of one degree Rankine is precisely 1.8 times smaller in magnitude than one kelvin; thus, to convert a specific temperature on the Kelvin scale to the Rankine scale, K 1.8 = R, and to convert from a temperature on the Rankine scale to the Kelvin scale, R / 1.8 = K. Consequently, absolute zero is "0" for both scales, but the melting point of water ice (0 C and 273.15 K) is 491.67 R.

To convert temperature intervals (a span or difference between two temperatures), one uses the same formulas from the preceding paragraph; for instance, a range of 5 kelvins is precisely equal to a range of 9 degrees Rankine.

For 65 years, between 1954 and the 2019 redefinition of the SI base units, a temperature interval of one kelvin was defined as .mw-parser-output .sfracwhite-space:nowrap.mw-parser-output .sfrac.tion,.mw-parser-output .sfrac .tiondisplay:inline-block;vertical-align:-0.5em;font-size:85%;text-align:center.mw-parser-output .sfrac .num,.mw-parser-output .sfrac .dendisplay:block;line-height:1em;margin:0 0.1em.mw-parser-output .sfrac .denborder-top:1px solid.mw-parser-output .sr-onlyborder:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px1/273.16 the difference between the triple point of water and absolute zero. The 1954 resolution by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (known by the French-language acronym BIPM), plus later resolutions and publications, defined the triple point of water as precisely 273.16 K and acknowledged that it was "common practice" to accept that due to previous conventions (namely, that 0 C had long been defined as the melting point of water and that the triple point of water had long been experimentally determined to be indistinguishably close to 0.01 C), the difference between the Celsius scale and Kelvin scale is accepted as 273.15 kelvins; which is to say, 0 C equals 273.15 kelvins.[6] The net effect of this as well as later resolutions was twofold: 1) they defined absolute zero as precisely 0 K, and 2) they defined that the triple point of special isotopically controlled water called Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water was precisely 273.16 K and 0.01 C. One effect of the aforementioned resolutions was that the melting point of water, while very close to 273.15 K and 0 C, was not a defining value and was subject to refinement with more precise measurements.

Though the kinetic energy borne exclusively in the three translational degrees of freedom comprise the thermodynamic temperature of a substance, molecules, as can be seen in Fig. 3, can have other degrees of freedom, all of which fall under three categories: bond length, bond angle, and rotational. All three additional categories are not necessarily available to all molecules, and even for molecules that can experience all three, some can be "frozen out" below a certain temperature. Nonetheless, all those degrees of freedom that are available to the molecules under a particular set of conditions contribute to the specific heat capacity of a substance; which is to say, they increase the amount of heat (kinetic energy) required to raise a given amount of the substance by one kelvin or one degree Celsius. 041b061a72