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Nurses are usually represented as 'servants of health' in various clinical settings, suggesting that the nursing profession is primarily service oriented. Sjöstrand and Wiestal (1994) have explained why the nursing profession possessed such characteristics. And, from this point of view, nursing is not just humanistically based, it is also a social-organizational one. There are intimate linkages between professional practice and organizational practice. Therefore, the study of values of healthcare professionals is especially important. Nurses, physicians and other healthcare providers share a common goal of providing quality of care, and it is important for the organization to recognise this common goal. An organization's readiness to employ, reward, and/or value specific behaviors of its employees (which are associated with the organization's values) can be used to attract the employee to be committed to the organization's goals. Commitment is, in turn, related to satisfaction with the work (Rokeach 1973).
If we were to conceptualize values as culture, we would not expect universal values to exist. However, many researchers have observed that the world's cultures, at least those of democratic capitalist countries, share some universal values. Therefore, a question arises about what makes for the values of a democratic society. To answer this question, the answers reported by Rokeach & Gaddie (1968; Rokeach 1973) are summarized.
Rokeach & Gaddie (1968) argued that all people seek happiness, with some people seeking greater happiness and others seeking lesser happiness. Happiness is conceived of as both an objective good, as a condition of living in accordance with one's own nature, and subjective good, as a condition of liking and valuing oneself. The highest end-states of existence of the three universally shared values are reported as happiness, well-being, and flourishing. The three commonly endorsed instrumental and terminal values that are also universally shared are as follows: a good standard of living (human security), beneficial relationships between the individual and society, and useful work. (Rokeach and Gaddie 1968; Rokeach 1973) reported that the two instrumental values that were also commonly endorsed in the study were public purpose and spiritual purpose. d2c66b5586